The Analects

Book 10 (cont.): Heang Tang


Chapter 8.

Rules of Confucius about his food.

1. He did not dislike to have his rice finely cleaned, nor to have his mince meat cut quite small.

2. He did not eat rice which had been injured by heat or damp and turned sour, nor fish or flesh which was gone. He did not eat what was discolored, or what was of a bad flavor, nor anything which was ill-cooked, or was not in season.

3. He did not eat meat which was not cut properly, nor what was served without its proper sauce.

4. Though there might be a large quantity of meat, he would not allow what he took to exceed the due proportion for the rice. It was only in wine that he laid down no limit for himself, but he did not allow himself to be confused by it.

5. He did not partake of wine and dried meat bought in the market.

6. He was never without ginger when he ate.

7. He did not eat much.

8. When he had been assisting at the prince's sacrifice, he did not keep the flesh which he received overnight. The flesh of his family sacrifice he did not keep over three days. If kept over three days, people could not eat it.

9. When eating, he did not converse. When in bed, he did not speak.

10. Although his food might be coarse rice and vegetable soup, he would offer a little of it in sacrifice with a grave, respectful air.

Chapter 9.

Rule of Confucius about his mat.

If his mat was not straight, he did not sit on it.

Chapter 10.

Other ways of Confucius in his village.

1. When the villagers were drinking together, upon those who carried staffs going out, he went out immediately after.

2. When the villagers were going through their ceremonies to drive away pestilential influences, he put on his court robes and stood on the eastern steps.

Chapter 11.

Traits of Confucius's intercourse with others.

1. When he was sending complimentary inquiries to any one in another state, he bowed twice as he escorted the messenger away.

2. Chi K'ang having sent him a present of physic, he bowed and received it, saying, "I do not know it. I dare not taste it."

Chapter 12.

How Confucius valued human life.

The stable being burned down, when he was at court, on his return he said, "Has any man been hurt?" He did not ask about the horses.

Chapter 13.

Demeanor of Confucius in relation to his prince.

1. When the prince sent him a gift of cooked meat, he would adjust his mat, first taste it, and then give it away to others. When the prince sent him a gift of undressed meat, he would have it cooked, and offer it to the spirits of his ancestors. When the prince sent him a gift of a living animal, he would keep it alive.

2. When he was in attendance on the prince and joining in the entertainment, the prince only sacrificed. He first tasted everything.

3. When he was ill and the prince came to visit him, he had his head to the east, made his court robes be spread over him, and drew his girdle across them.

4. When the prince's order called him, without waiting for his carriage to be yoked, he went at once.

Chapter 14.

See Book 3 Chapter 15.

When he entered the ancestral temple of the state, he asked about everything.

Chapter 15.

Traits of Confucius in the relation of a friend.

1. When any of his friends died, if he had no relations who could be depended on for the necessary offices, he would say, "I will bury him."

2. When a friend sent him a present, though it might be a carriage and horses, he did not bow.

3. The only present for which he bowed was that of the flesh of sacrifice.

Chapter 16.

Confucius in bed, at home, hearing thunder, &c.

1. In bed, he did not lie like a corpse. At home, he did not put on any formal deportment.

2. When he saw any one in a mourning dress, though it might be an acquaintance, he would change countenance; when he saw any one wearing the cap of full dress, or a blind person, though he might be in his undress, he would salute him in a ceremonious manner.

3. To any person in mourning he bowed forward to the crossbar of his carriage; he bowed in the same way to any one bearing the tables of population.

4. When he was at an entertainment where there was an abundance of provisions set before him, he would change countenance and rise up.

5. On a sudden clap of thunder, or a violent wind, he would change countenance.

Chapter 17.

Confucius at and in his carriage.

1. When he was about to mount his carriage, he would stand straight, holding the cord.

2. When he was in the carriage, he did not turn his head quite round, he did not talk hastily, he did not point with his hands.

Chapter 18.

A fragment, which seemingly has no connexion with the rest of the Book.

1. Seeing the countenance, it instantly rises. It flies round, and by and by settles.

2. The Master said, "There is the hen-pheasant on the hill bridge. At its season! At its season!" Tsze-lû made a motion to it. Thrice it smelled him and then rose.