The vices which youth, manhood, and age respectively have to guard against.
Confucius said, "There are three things which the superior man guards against. In youth, when the physical powers are not yet settled, he guards against lust. When he is strong and the physical powers are full of vigor, he guards against quarrelsomeness. When he is old, and the animal powers are decayed, he guards against covetousness."
Contrast of the superior and the mean man in regard to the three things of which the former stands in awe.
1. Confucius said, "There are three things of which the superior man stands in awe. He stands in awe of the ordinances of Heaven. He stands in awe of great men. He stands in awe of the words of sages.
2. "The mean man does not know the ordinances of Heaven, and consequently does not stand in awe of them. He is disrespectful to great men. He makes sport of the words of sages."
Four classes of men in relation to knowledge.
Confucius said, "Those who are born with the possession of knowledge are the highest class of men. Those who learn, and so, readily, get possession of knowledge, are the next. Those who are dull and stupid, and yet compass the learning, are another class next to these. As to those who are dull and stupid and yet do not learn;-- they are the lowest of the people."
Nine subjects of thought to the superior man:-- various instances of the way in which he regulates himself.
Confucius said, "The superior man has nine things which are subjects with him of thoughtful consideration. In regard to the use of his eyes, he is anxious to see clearly. In regard to the use of his ears, he is anxious to hear distinctly. In regard to his countenance, he is anxious that it should be benign. In regard to his demeanor, he is anxious that it should be respectful. In regard to his speech, he is anxious that it should be sincere. In regard to his doing of business, he is anxious that it should be reverently careful. In regard to what he doubts about, he is anxious to question others. When he is angry, he thinks of the difficulties (his anger may involve him in). When he sees gain to be got, he thinks of righteousness."
The contemporaries of Confucius could eschew evil, and follow after good, but no one of the highest capacity had appeared among them.
1. Confucius said, "Contemplating good, and pursuing it, as if they could not reach it; contemplating evil! and shrinking from it, as they would from thrusting the hand into boiling water:-- I have seen such men, as I have heard such words.
2. "Living in retirement to study their aims, and practicing righteousness to carry out their principles:-- I have heard these words, but I have not seen such men."
Wealth without virtue and virtue without wealth;-- their different appreciations.
1. The Duke Ching of Ch'î had a thousand teams, each of four horses, but on the day of his death, the people did not praise him for a single virtue. Po-î and Shû-ch'î died of hunger at the foot of the Shâu-yang mountain, and the people, down to the present time, praise them.
2. "Is not that saying illustrated by this?"
Confucius's instruction of his son not different from his instruction of the disciples generally.
1. Ch'an K'ang asked Po-yü, saying, "Have you heard any lessons from your father different from what we have all heard?"
2. Po-yü replied, "No. He was standing alone once, when I passed below the hall with hasty steps, and said to me, 'Have you learned the Odes?' On my replying 'Not yet,' he added, 'If you do not learn the Odes, you will not be fit to converse with.' I retired and studied the Odes.
3. "Another day, he was in the same way standing alone, when I passed by below the hall with hasty steps, and said to me, 'Have you learned the rules of Propriety?' On my replying 'Not yet,' he added, 'If you do not learn the rules of Propriety, your character cannot be established.' I then retired, and learned the rules of Propriety.
4. "I have heard only these two things from him."
5. Ch'ang K'ang retired, and, quite delighted, said, "I asked one thing, and I have got three things. I have heard about the Odes. I have heard about the rules of Propriety. I have also heard that the superior man maintains a distant reserve towards his son."
Appellations for the wife of a ruler.
The wife of the prince of a state is called by him FÛ ZAN. She calls herself HSIÂO T'UNG. The people of the state call her CHÜN FÛ ZAN, and, to the people of other states, they call her K'WA HSIÂO CHÜN. The people of other states also call her CHÜN FÛ ZAN.