The Analects

Book 18: Wei Tsze


Chapter I.

The viscounts of Wei and Chî, and Pî-kan:-- three worthies of the Yin dynasty.

1. The Viscount of Wei withdrew from the court. The Viscount of Chî became a slave to Châu. Pî-kan remonstrated with him and died.

2. Confucius said, "The Yin dynasty possessed these three men of virtue."

Chapter 2.

How Hûi of Liû-hsiâ, thought often dismissed from office, still clave to his country.

Hûi of Liû-hsiâ, being chief criminal judge, was thrice dismissed from his office. Some one said to him, "Is it not yet time for you, sir, to leave this?" He replied, "Serving men in an upright way, where shall I go to, and not experience such a thrice-repeated dismissal? If I choose to serve men in a crooked way, what necessity is there for me to leave the country of my parents?"

Chapter 3.

How Confucius left Ch'î, when the duke could not appreciate and employ him.

The duke Ching of Ch'î, with reference to the manner in which he should treat Confucius, said, "I cannot treat him as I would the chief of the Chî family. I will treat him in a manner between that accorded to the chief of the Chî, and that given to the chief of the Mang family." He also said, "I am old; I cannot use his doctrines." Confucius took his departure.

Chapter 4.

How Confucius gave up official service in Lû.

The people of Ch'î sent to Lû a present of female musicians, which Chî Hwan received, and for three days no court was held. Confucius took his departure.

Chapter 5.

Confucius and the madman of Ch'û, who blames his not retiring from the world.

1. The madman of Ch'û, Chieh-yü, passed by Confucius, singing and saying, "O FANG! O FANG! How is your virtue degenerated! As to the past, reproof is useless; but the future may still be provided against. Give up your vain pursuit. Give up your vain pursuit. Peril awaits those who now engage in affairs of government."

2. Confucius alighted and wished to converse with him, but Chieh-yü hastened away, so that he could not talk with him.

Chapter 6.

Confucius and the two recluses, Ch'ang-tsü and Chieh-nî; why he would not withdraw from the world.

1. Ch'ang-tsü and Chieh-nî were at work in the field together, when Confucius passed by them, and sent Tsze-lû to inquire for the ford.

2. Ch'ang-tsü said, "Who is he that holds the reins in the carriage there?" Tsze-lû told him, "It is K'ung Ch'iû.', "Is it not K'ung Ch'iû of Lû?" asked he. "Yes," was the reply, to which the other rejoined, "He knows the ford."

3. Tsze-lû then inquired of Chieh-nî, who said to him, "Who are you, sir?" He answered, "I am Chung Yû." "Are you not the disciple of K'ung Ch'iû of Lû?" asked the other. "I am," replied he, and then Chieh-nî said to him, "Disorder, like a swelling flood, spreads over the whole empire, and who is he that will change its state for you? Rather than follow one who merely withdraws from this one and that one, had you not better follow those who have withdrawn from the world altogether?" With this he fell to covering up the seed, and proceeded with his work, without stopping.

4. Tsze-lû went and reported their remarks, when the Master observed with a sigh, "It is impossible to associate with birds and beasts, as if they were the same with us. If I associate not with these people, -- with mankind, -- with whom shall I associate? If right principles prevailed through the empire, there would be no use for me to change its state."

Chapter 7.

Tsze-lû's recontre with an old man, a recluse: his vindication of his master's course.

1. Tsze-lû, following the Master, happened to fall behind, when he met an old man, carrying across his shoulder on a staff a basket for weeds. Tsze-lû said to him, "Have you seen my master, sir?" The old man replied, "Your four limbs are unaccustomed to toil; you cannot distinguish the five kinds of grain:-- who is your master?" With this, he planted his staff in the ground, and proceeded to weed.

2. Tsze-lû joined his hands across his breast, and stood before him.

3. The old man kept Tsze-lû to pass the night in his house, killed a fowl, prepared millet, and feasted him. He also introduced to him his two sons.

4. Next day, Tsze-lû went on his way, and reported his adventure. The Master said, "He is a recluse," and sent Tsze-lû back to see him again, but when he got to the place, the old man was gone.

5. Tsze-lû then said to the family, "Not to take office is not righteous. If the relations between old and young may not be neglected, how is it that he sets aside the duties that should be observed between sovereign and minister? Wishing to maintain his personal purity, he allows that great relation to come to confusion. A superior man takes office, and performs the righteous duties belonging to it. As to the failure of right principles to make progress, he is aware of that."

Chapter 8.

Confucius's judgment of former worthies who had kept from the world.

1. The men who have retired to privacy from the world have been Po-î, Shû-ch'î, Yü-chung, Î-yî, Chû-chang, Hûi of Liû-hsiâ, and Shâo-lien.

2. The Master said, "Refusing to surrender their wills, or to submit to any taint in their persons;-- such, I think, were Po-î and Shû-ch'î.

3. "It may be said of Hûi of Liû-hsiâ, and of Shâo-lien, that they surrendered their wills, and submitted to taint in their persons, but their words corresponded with reason, and their actions were such as men are anxious to see. This is all that is to be remarked in them.

4. "It may be said of Yü-chung and Î-yî, that, while they hid themselves in their seclusion, they gave a license to their words; but in their persons, they succeeded in preserving their purity, and, in their retirement, they acted according to the exigency of the times.

5. "I am different from all these. I have no course for which I am predetermined, and no course against which I am predetermined."

Chapter 9.

The dispersion of the musicians of Lû.

1. The grand music master, Chih, went to Ch'î.

2. Kan, the master of the band at the second meal, went to Ch'û. Liâo, the band master at the third meal, went to Ts'âi. Chüeh, the band master at the fourth meal, went to Ch'in.

3. Fang-shû, the drum master, withdrew to the north of the river.

4. Wû, the master of the hand drum, withdrew to the Han.

5. Yang, the assistant music master, and Hsiang, master of the musical stone, withdrew to an island in the sea.

Chapter 10.

Instructions of Châu-kung to his son about government; a generous consideration of others to be cherished.

The duke of Châu addressed his son, the duke of Lû, saying, "The virtuous prince does not neglect his relations. He does not cause the great ministers to repine at his not employing them. Without some great cause, he does not dismiss from their offices the members of old families. He does not seek in one man talents for every employment."

Chapter 11.

The fruitfulness of the early time of the Châu dynasty in able officers.

To Châu belonged the eight officers, Po-tâ, Po-kwô, Chung-tû, Chung-hwû, Shû-yâ, Shû-hsiâ, Chî-sui, and Chî-kwa.