The Analects

Book 19: Tsze-Chang


Chapter I.

Tsze-chang's opinion of the chief attributes of a true scholar.

Tsze-chang said, "The scholar, trained for public duty, seeing threatening danger, is prepared to sacrifice his life. When the opportunity of gain is presented to him, he thinks of righteousness. In sacrificing, his thoughts are reverential. In mourning, his thoughts are about the grief which he should feel. Such a man commands our approbation indeed."

Chapter 2.

Tsze-chang on narrow-mindedness and a hesitating faith.

Tsze-chang said, "When a man holds fast to virtue, but without seeking to enlarge it, and believes in right principles, but without firm sincerity, what account can be made of his existence or non-existence?"

Chapter 3.

The different opinions of Tsze-Hsiâ and Tsze-chang on the principles which should regulate our intercourse with others.

The disciples of Tsze-hsiâ asked Tsze-chang about the principles that should characterize mutual intercourse. Tsze-chang asked, "What does Tsze-hsiâ say on the subject?" They replied, "Tsze-hsiâ says: 'Associate with those who can advantage you. Put away from you those who cannot do so.'" Tsze-chang observed, "This is different from what I have learned. The superior man honors the talented and virtuous, and bears with all. He praises the good, and pities the incompetent. Am I possessed of great talents and virtue? -- who is there among men whom I will not bear with? Am I devoid of talents and virtue? -- men will put me away from them. What have we to do with the putting away of others?"

Chapter 4.

Tsze-hsiâ's opinion of the inapplicability of small pursuits to great objects.

Tsze-hsiâ said, "Even in inferior studies and employments there is something worth being looked at; but if it be attempted to carry them out to what is remote, there is a danger of their proving inapplicable. Therefore, the superior man does not practice them."

Chapter 5.

The indications of a real love of learning:-- by Tsze-hsiâ.

Tsze-hsiâ said, "He, who from day to day recognizes what he has not yet, and from month to month does not forget what he has attained to, may be said indeed to love to learn."

Chapter 6.

How learning should be pursued to lead to virtue:-- by Tsze-hsiâ.

Tsze-hsiâ said, "There are learning extensively, and having a firm and sincere aim; inquiring with earnestness, and reflecting with self-application:-- virtue is in such a course."

Chapter 7.

Learning is the student's workshop:-- by Tsze-hsiâ.

Tsze-hsiâ said, "Mechanics have their shops to dwell in, in order to accomplish their works. The superior man learns, in order to reach to the utmost of his principles."

Chapter 8.

Glossing his faults the proof of the mean man:-- by Tsze-hsiâ.

Tsze-hsiâ said, "The mean man is sure to gloss his faults."

Chapter 9.

Changing appearances of the superior man to others:-- by Tsze-hsiâ.

Tsze-hsiâ said, "The superior man undergoes three changes. Looked at from a distance, he appears stern; when approached, he is mild; when he is heard to speak, his language is firm and decided."

Chapter 10.

The importance of enjoying confidence to the right serving of superiors and ordering of inferiors:-- by Tsze-hsiâ.

Tsze-hsiâ said, "The superior man, having obtained their confidence, may then impose labors on his people. If he have not gained their confidence, they will think that he is oppressing them. Having obtained the confidence of his prince, one may then remonstrate with him. If he have not gained his confidence, the prince will think that he is vilifying him."

Chapter 11.

The great virtues demand the chief attention, and the small ones may be somewhat violated:-- Tsze-hsiâ.

Tsze-hsiâ said, "When a person does not transgress the boundary line in the great virtues, he may pass and repass it in the small virtues."

Chapter 12.

Tsze-hsiâ's defence of his own graduated methods of teaching:-- against Tsze-yû.

1. Tsze-yû said, "The disciples and followers of Tsze-hsiâ, in sprinkling and sweeping the ground, in answering and replying, in advancing and receding, are sufficiently accomplished. But these are only the branches of learning, and they are left ignorant of what is essential. -- How can they be acknowledged as sufficiently taught?"

2. Tsze-hsiâ heard of the remark and said, "Alas! Yen Yû is wrong. According to the way of the superior man in teaching, what departments are there which he considers of prime importance, and delivers? what are there which he considers of secondary importance, and allows himself to be idle about? But as in the case of plants, which are assorted according to their classes, so he deals with his disciples. How can the way of a superior man be such as to make fools of any of them? Is it not the sage alone, who can unite in one the beginning and the consummation of learning?"

Chapter 13.

The officer and the student should attend each to his proper work in the first instance:-- by Tsze-hsiâ.

Tsze-hsiâ said, "The officer, having discharged all his duties, should devote his leisure to learning. The student, having completed his learning, should apply himself to be an officer."

Chapter 14.

The trappings of mourning may be dispensed with:-- by Tsze-yû.

Tsze-hsiâ said, "Mourning, having been carried to the utmost degree of grief, should stop with that."

Chapter 15.

Tsze-yû's opinion of Tsze-chang, as minding high things too much.

Tsze-hsiâ said, "My friend Chang can do things which are hard to be done, but yet he is not perfectly virtuous."