The Analects

Book 19 (cont.): Tsze-Chang


Chapter 16.

The philosopher Tsang's opinion of Tsze-chang, as too high-pitched for friendship.

The philosopher Tsang said, "How imposing is the manner of Chang! It is difficult along with him to practice virtue."

Chapter 17.

How grief for the loss of parents brings out the real nature of man:-- by Tsang Shan.

The philosopher Tsang said, "I heard this from our Master:-- 'Men may not have shown what is in them to the full extent, and yet they will be found to do so, on the occasion of mourning for their parents."

Chapter 18.

The filial piety of Mang Chwang:-- by Tsang Shan.

The philosopher Tsang said, "I have heard this from our Master:-- 'The filial piety of Mang Chwang, in other matters, was what other men are competent to, but, as seen in his not changing the ministers of his father, nor his father's mode of government, it is difficult to be attained to.'"

Chapter 19.

How a criminal judge should cherish compassion in his administration of justice:-- by Tsang Shan.

The chief of the Mang family having appointed Yang Fû to be chief criminal judge, the latter consulted the philosopher Tsang. Tsang said, "The rulers have failed in their duties, and the people consequently have been disorganized, for a long time. When you have found out the truth of any accusation, be grieved for and pity them, and do not feel joy at your own ability."

Chapter 20.

The danger of a bad name:-- by Tsze-kung.

Tsze-kung said, "Châu's wickedness was not so great as that name implies. Therefore, the superior man hates to dwell in a low-lying situation, where all the evil of the world will flow in upon him."

Chapter 21.

The superior man does not conceal his errors, nor persist in them:-- by Tsze-kung.

Tsze-kung said, "The faults of the superior man are like the eclipses of the sun and moon. He has his faults, and all men see them; he changes again, and all men look up to him."

Chapter 22.

Confucius's sources of knowledge were the recollections and traditions of the priciples of Wan and Wû:-- by Tsze-kung.

1. Kung-sun Ch'âo of Wei asked Tsze-kung, saying. "From whom did Chung-nî get his learning?"

2. Tsze-kung replied, "The doctrines of Wan and Wû have not yet fallen to the ground. They are to be found among men. Men of talents and virtue remember the greater principles of them, and others, not possessing such talents and virtue, remember the smaller. Thus, all possess the doctrines of Wan and Wû. Where could our Master go that he should not have an opportunity of learning them? And yet what necessity was there for his having a regular master?"

Chapter 23.

Tsze-kung repudiates being thought superior to Confucius, and, by the comparison of a house and wall, shows how ordinary people could not understand the Master.

1. Shû-sun Wû-shû observed to the great officers in the court, saying, "Tsze-kung is superior to Chung-nî."

2. Tsze-fû Ching-po reported the observation to Tsze-kung, who said, "Let me use the comparison of a house and its encompassing wall. My wall only reaches to the shoulders. One may peep over it, and see whatever is valuable in the apartments.

3. "The wall of my Master is several fathoms high. If one do not find the door and enter by it, he cannot see the ancestral temple with its beauties, nor all the officers in their rich array.

4. "But I may assume that they are few who find the door. Was not the observation of the chief only what might have been expected?"

Chapter 24.

Confucius is like the sun or moon, high above the reach of depreciation:-- by Tsze-kung.

Shû-sun Wû-shû having spoken revilingly of Chung-nî, Tsze-kung said, "It is of no use doing so. Chung-nî cannot be reviled. The talents and virtue of other men are hillocks and mounds which may be stepped over. Chung-nî is the sun or moon, which it is not possible to step over. Although a man may wish to cut himself off from the sage, what harm can he do to the sun or moon? He only shows that he does not know his own capacity.

Chapter 25.

Confucius can be no more equalled than the heavens can be climbed:-- by Tsze-kung.

1. Ch'an Tsze-ch'in, addressing Tsze-kung, said, "You are too modest. How can Chung-nî be said to be superior to you?"

2. Tsze-kung said to him, "For one word a man is often deemed to be wise, and for one word he is often deemed to be foolish. We ought to be careful indeed in what we say.

3. "Our Master cannot be attained to, just in the same way as the heavens cannot be gone up by the steps of a stair.

4. "Were our Master in the position of the ruler of a state or the chief of a family, we should find verified the description which has been given of a sage's rule:-- he would plant the people, and forthwith they would be established; he would lead them on, and forthwith they would follow him; he would make them happy, and forthwith multitudes would resort to his dominions; he would stimulate them, and forthwith they would be harmonious. While he lived, he would be glorious. When he died, he would be bitterly lamented. How is it possible for him to be attained to?"